Testing Your Code The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python
Optional arguments extraglobs, verbose, report, optionflags,
raise_on_error, and globs are the same as for function testfile()
above, except that globs defaults to m.__dict__. This means examples can
freely use any names defined at top-level in M, and names defined earlier
in the docstring being run. In addition, there are cases when you want tests to be part of a module but not part
of the help text, which requires that the tests not be included in the docstring. Doctest looks for a module-level variable called __test__ and uses it to locate other
tests. If M.__test__ exists and is truthy, it must be a dict, and each
entry maps a (string) name to a function object, class object, or string.
Functional tests tend to answer the question of “can the user do this” or “does this particular feature work.” For example, faults in the dead code will never result in failures. A fault that did not reveal failures may result in a failure when the environment is changed. You can set the GTEST_COLOR environment variable or the –gtest_color
command line flag to yes, no, or auto (the default) to enable colors,
disable colors, or let GoogleTest decide.
Automating the Execution of Your Tests
Nose2 offers many command-line flags for filtering the tests that you execute. For more information, you can explore the Nose 2 documentation. You can write both integration tests and unit tests in Python. To write a unit test for the built-in function sum(), you would check the output of sum() against a known output. Automated testing is the execution of your test plan (the parts of your application you want to test, the order in which you want to test them, and the expected responses) by a script instead of a human.
A list of str objects with the formatted output of
matching messages. Test that obj is (or is not) an instance of cls (which can be a
class or a tuple of classes, as supported by isinstance()). Skipped tests will not have setUp() or tearDown() run around them. Skipped classes will not have setUpClass() or tearDownClass() run.
Automated vs. Manual Testing
It is an error to
specify package if module_relative is False. The -c/–catch command-line option to unittest,
along with the catchbreak parameter to unittest.main(), provide
more friendly handling of control-C during a test run. With catch break
behavior enabled control-C will allow the currently running test to complete,
and the test run will then end and report all the results so far.
- In such cases,
disabling an option via – in a directive can be useful.
- Functional testing refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code.
- Tox is a tool for automating test environment management and testing against
multiple interpreter configurations.
- It allows you to replace parts of your system under test with mock objects and
make assertions about how they have been used.
- Flask requires that the app be imported and then set in test mode.
A processing class used to extract the DocTests that are relevant to
a given object, from its docstring and the docstrings of its contained objects. DocTests can be extracted from modules, classes, functions,
methods, staticmethods, classmethods, and properties. The expected ico development company output from running the example’s source code (either from
stdout, or a traceback in case of exception). Want ends with a
newline unless no output is expected, in which case it’s an empty string. Optional argument tearDown specifies a tear-down function for the test
GoogleTest creates a new test fixture object for each test in order to make
tests independent and easier to debug. However, sometimes tests use resources
that are expensive to set up, making the one-copy-per-test model prohibitively
expensive. The reason for the two death test styles has to do with thread safety. Due to
well-known problems with forking in the presence of threads, death tests should
be run in a single-threaded context.
When used as a context manager, assertWarns() accepts the
additional keyword argument msg. When used as a context manager, assertRaises() accepts the
additional keyword argument msg. As well as being a path it is possible to pass a package name, for example
myproject.subpackage.test, as the start directory.
The optional keyword argument optionflags can be used to control how the test
runner compares expected output to actual output, and how it displays failures. Optional argument optionflags specifies the default doctest options for the
tests, created by or-ing together individual option flags. See function set_unittest_reportflags() below
for a better way to set reporting options. If there are any exceptions raised during one of the shared fixture functions
the test is reported as an error.
Software testing provides an independent view and objective of the software and gives surety of fitness of the software. It involves testing of all components under the required services to confirm that whether it is satisfying the specified requirements or not. The process is also providing the client with information about the quality of the software.
Advanced GoogleTest Topics
The crux of each test is a call to assertEqual() to check for an
expected result; assertTrue() or assertFalse()
to verify a condition; or assertRaises() to verify that a
specific exception gets raised. These methods are used instead of the
assert statement so the test runner can accumulate all test results
and produce a report. The three
individual tests are defined with methods whose names start with the letters
test. This naming convention informs the test runner about which methods
represent tests. Functional testing refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code. These are usually found in the code requirements documentation, although some development methodologies work from use cases or user stories.
Calling this during a test method or setUp() skips the current
test. See Skipping tests and expected failures for more information. When there are very small differences among your tests, for
instance some parameters, unittest allows you to distinguish them inside
the body of a test method using the subTest() context manager.
DocTestCase isn’t documented
here (it’s an internal detail), but studying its code can answer questions about
the exact details of unittest integration. Optional argument package is a Python package or the name of a Python
package whose directory should be used as the base directory for
module-relative filenames in paths. If no package is specified, then the
calling module’s directory is used as the base directory for module-relative
filenames. It is an error to specify package if module_relative is
Testing Data-Driven Applications
If true, objects for which
no doctests are found are excluded from consideration. The default is a backward
compatibility hack, so that code still using doctest.master.summarize() in
conjunction with testmod() continues to get output for objects with no
tests. The exclude_empty argument to the newer DocTestFinder
constructor defaults to true. Optional argument package is a Python package or the name of a Python package
whose directory should be used as the base directory for a module-relative
filename. If no package is specified, then the calling module’s directory is
used as the base directory for module-relative filenames.
Other types of Testing
Now that you’ve learned how to create tests, execute them, include them in your project, and even execute them automatically, there are a few advanced techniques you might find handy as your test library grows. This test case will now only pass if sum(data) raises a TypeError. You can replace TypeError with any exception type you choose. All of the test client instantiation is done in the setUp method of your test case.